While there were many regionally distinct cultures, trade between them was common and they shared the practice of burying their dead in earthen mounds, which has preserved a large amount of their art. Because of this trait the cultures are collectively known as the Mound builders. The Woodland period BCE— CE is divided into early, middle, and late periods, and consisted of cultures that relied mostly on hunting and gathering for their subsistence. Ceramics made by the Deptford culture BCE— CE are the earliest evidence of an artistic tradition in this region. The Adena culture are another well-known example of an early Woodland culture. They carved stone tablets with zoomorphic designs, created pottery , and fashioned costumes from animal hides and antlers for ceremonial rituals. Shellfish was a mainstay of their diet, and engraved shells have been found in their burial mounds. The Middle Woodland period was dominated by cultures of the Hopewell tradition —

The Native Americans

May 2, , University of Kansas Credit: University of Kansas A University of Kansas anthropological geneticist is part of an international research team working to shed light upon one of the unanswered questions concerning the peopling of the New World: Namely, what was the size of the original founding population of the Americas?

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Ancient Indian Ruins in Arizona The purpose of this website is to document some of the lesser-known prehistoric archaeological sites throughout Arizona. Many of the most spectacular Native American ruins in the state are operated as tourist attractions, with parking lots, sidewalks, guardrails, descriptive signs, and tour guides or Park Rangers keeping an eye on things. Although some of these are included here, the primary emphasis is on unknown or unpublicized sites located in National Forests, State Trust land, and other remote places.

Generally these are not as large or impressive as the public sites, and many have been severely damaged by looters and careless hikers. But as a general rule, the harder a site is to get to the better its condition will be, and there exist some pretty spectacular ruins in the dark recessed of Arizona’s wilderness areas The map below shows the general location of the ruins covered in this website. Mouse over a marker for a brief description.

Click on a marker to follow the link. Map of Arizona Archaeological Sites Links to sites and site groups Click on a thumbnail to go to the page. Sites with a red title require hiking. Sites with a green title are accessible by passenger car and generally require a fee. Sycamore Canyon Wilderness A multi-room Sinagua cliff dwelling, and a nearby panel of pictographs. Montezuma’s Castle The best-preserved cliff dwelling in Arizona. Sierra Anch National Wilderness The canyons of the Sierra Anchas contain multiple large cliff dwellings–and some of the most rugged terrain in Arizona.

Roger’s Canyon Cave Ruin A group of free-standing ruins constructed inside a shallow cave.

Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas

Other cheifdoms persisted in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast into the contact era, and were visited by early Spanish explorers. Columbus arrived in the Carribean and the coast of Central and South America in when the Mississippian cultures were rapidly dissolving into smaller, less centralized groups. Southeastern Mississippian Sites Further Resources: On the threshold of European contact, these diverse North American tribes spoke nearly different languages.

is an Encyclopedia for the Native American flute.

Share this article Share Retailer Victoria’s Secret and the band No Doubt have apologized in recent years for using Native American dress as fashion statements. A spokesman for Gov. Mary Fallin had no comment. The photo on Instagram says it was taken at Remington Park, a casino and horse race track owned by the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma City.

A Chickasaw Nation spokesman had no immediate comment. A spokesman for Governor Mary Fallin, seen here at the Governors Dinner in the State Dining Room of the White House on February 23, had no comment Christina Fallin also made headlines in after taking part in a photo shoot for a local magazine at the governor’s mansion. Scroll down to watch. Videos from the shoot showing her in avant-garde and revealing fashions strolling around the mansion property were ultimately removed from the magazine’s website after some people said they were distasteful.

At the time Gov. Fallin said she did not have advance notice that her daughter planned to do the shoot. The governor’s daughter, who is a marketing consultant for and appears in a local magazine called So6ix and is part of an electric-punk band called Pink Pony, has posted several photos in the past few weeks from events with her mother. Victoria’s Secret apologized in after Karlie Kloss was outfitted in a similar headdress for their runway show She was at the State of the State speech at the state capitol and posted photos from a trip to Washington, D.

The picture of her in the headdress quickly drew negative comments on Fallin’s social media profiles, many of which were deleted. There’s a big difference between doing it stupidly and doing it knowingly.

Geoff Mangum’s Guide to American Indian History

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Missouri Lithics –the oldest occupational craft of the oldest Missouri folk. This page offers some examples of artifacts produced by the earliest inhabitants of Missouri, as well as some useful links — the first of which includes a highly recommended overview of the ethics (and legalities) of collecting prehistoric artifacts.

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Among the more popular misconceptions were those holding that the first residents of the continent had been members of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel or refugees from the lost island of Atlantis , that their descendents had developed the so-called Mound Builder culture , and that Native Americans had later overrun and destroyed the Mound Builder civilization. These erroneous and overtly racist beliefs were often used to rationalize the destruction or displacement of indigenous Americans.

Such beliefs were not dispelled until the s, when Cyrus Thomas, a pioneering archaeologist employed by the Smithsonian Institution , demonstrated conclusively that the great effigy mounds , burial mounds , and temple mounds of the Northeast and Southeast culture areas had been built by Native Americans. Monks Mound covers some 15 acres 6 hectares and is approximately feet 30 metres high; it dwarfs the automobile visible on the road in this photograph.

Courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site Until the late s, it was generally believed—on the basis of evidence of the Clovis projectile points that had been found in New Mexico—that humans arrived in the Americas approximately 13, years ago. The land route is known as Beringia because it formed along the present-day Bering Strait.

Native American

Using methods of inference and analogy, selected objects in grave association of the prehistoric Hopewell culture-complex in southern Ohio appear to define a cult of the dead, and further suggest the presence of ritual specialists shamans and a highly structured social system. The mortuary cult may have been based upon cosmological elements similar to those present in aboriginal eastern North America, and with the data at least three hypothetical funeral variants can be reconstructed.

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H-Oralhist is a discussion network for scholars and others involved in oral history studies and practice. It is affiliated with the Oral History Association and provides links to oral history projects by subject as well as websites with sound files. High School students at the Urban School of San Franciso have produced three impressive oral history interviews featured at this site: Urban school students conducted, filmed, and transcribed interviews, created hundreds of movie files associated with each transcript, and then posted the full-text, full-video interviews on this public website.

Teachers interested in conducting an oral history project can contact Urban School technology director Howard Levin and should consider attending his summer teacher workshop. For this projects students interview individuals who helped shape or witnessed events or periods that form the American experience of the 20th century. Interviewees have ranged from war veterans, civil rights activists, politicians, and restaurant waitresses to survivors of the Great Depression and the Holocaust.

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Kokopelli is one of the favorite images of North American folkloric ideology. The likeness of a flute player with a hump, aged over 1, years through the oral and artistic traditions of the Hopi, can be found all over the southwest. Malotki, a professor of languages, analyzes the mystical fascination people have for the Panesque player of the flute.

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